An array is a collection of elements.

Arrays in JavaScript are not a type on their own.

Arrays are objects.

We can initialize an empty array in these 2 different ways:

const a = []
const a = Array()

The first is using the array literal syntax. The second uses the Array built-in function.

You can pre-fill the array using this syntax:

const a = [1, 2, 3]
const a = Array.of(1, 2, 3)

An array can hold any value, even value of different types:

const a = [1, 'Flavio', ['a', 'b']]

Since we can add an array into an array, we can create multi-dimensional arrays, which have very useful applications (e.g. a matrix):

const matrix = [
  [1, 2, 3],
  [4, 5, 6],
  [7, 8, 9]
]

matrix[0][0] //1
matrix[2][0] //7

You can access any element of the array by referencing its index, which starts from zero:

a[0] //1
a[1] //2
a[2] //3

You can initialize a new array with a set of values using this syntax, which first initializes an array of 12 elements, and fills each element with the 0 number:

Array(12).fill(0)

You can get the number of elements in the array by checking its length property:

const a = [1, 2, 3]
a.length //3

Note that you can set the length of the array. If you assign a bigger number than the arrays current capacity, nothing happens. If you assign a smaller number, the array is cut at that position:

const a = [1, 2, 3]
a //[ 1, 2, 3 ]
a.length = 2
a //[ 1, 2 ]

How to add an item to an array

We can add an element at the end of an array using the push() method:

a.push(4)

We can add an element at the beginning of an array using the unshift() method:

a.unshift(0)
a.unshift(-2, -1)

How to remove an item from an array

We can remove an item from the end of an array using the pop() method:

a.pop()

We can remove an item from the beginning of an array using the shift() method:

a.shift()

How to join two or more arrays

You can join multiple arrays by using concat():

const a = [1, 2]
const b = [3, 4]
const c = a.concat(b) //[1,2,3,4]
a //[1,2]
b //[3,4]

You can also use the spread operator (...) in this way:

const a = [1, 2]
const b = [3, 4]
const c = [...a, ...b]
c //[1,2,3,4]

How to find a specific item in the array

You can use the find() method of an array:

a.find((element, index, array) => {
  //return true or false
})

Returns the first item that returns true. Returns undefined if the element is not found.

A commonly used syntax is:

a.find(x => x.id === my_id)

The above line will return the first element in the array that has id === my_id.

findIndex() works similarly to find(), but returns the index of the first item that returns true, and if not found, it returns -1:

a.findIndex((element, index, array) => {
  //return true or false
})

Another method is includes():

a.includes(value)

Returns true if a contains value.

a.includes(value, i)

Returns true if a contains value after the position i.

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