Learning JavaScript? Download my freeJavaScript Handbook🔥

Performing math operations and calculus is a very common thing to do with any programming language.

JavaScript offers several operators to help us work with numbers.

- Addition (+)
- Subtraction (-)
- Division (/)
- Remainder (%)
- Multiplication (*)
- Exponentiation (**)
- Increment (++)
- Decrement (
`--`

) - Unary negation (-)
- Unary plus (+)

## Addition (+)

```
const three = 1 + 2
const four = three + 1
```

The `+`

operator also serves as string concatenation if you use strings, so pay attention:

```
const three = 1 + 2
three + 1 // 4
'three' + 1 // three1
```

## Subtraction (-)

```
const two = 4 - 2
```

## Division (/)

Returns the quotient of the first operator and the second:

```
const result = 20 / 5 //result === 4
const result = 20 / 7 //result === 2.857142857142857
```

If you divide by zero, JavaScript does not raise any error but returns the `Infinity`

value (or `-Infinity`

if the value is negative).

```
1 / 0 //Infinity
-1 / 0 //-Infinity
```

## Remainder (%)

The remainder is a very useful calculation in many use cases:

```
const result = 20 % 5 //result === 0
const result = 20 % 7 //result === 6
```

A reminder by zero is always `NaN`

, a special value that means “Not a Number”:

```
1 % 0 //NaN
-1 % 0 //NaN
```

## Multiplication (*)

Multiply two numbers

```
1 * 2 //2
-1 * 2 //-2
```

## Exponentiation (**)

Raise the first operand to the power second operand

```
1 ** 2 //1
2 ** 1 //2
2 ** 2 //4
2 ** 8 //256
8 ** 2 //64
```

The exponentiation operator `**`

is the equivalent of using `Math.pow()`

, but brought into the language instead of being a library function.

```
Math.pow(4, 2) == 4 ** 2
```

This feature is a nice addition for math intensive JS applications.

The `**`

operator is standardized across many languages including Python, Ruby, MATLAB, Lua, Perl and many others.

## Increment (++)

Increment a number. This is a unary operator, and if put before the number, it returns the value incremented.

If put after the number, it returns the original value, then increments it.

```
let x = 0
x++ //0
x //1
++x //2
```

## Decrement (`--`

)

Works like the increment operator, except it decrements the value.

```
let x = 0
x-- //0
x //-1
--x //-2
```

## Unary negation (-)

Return the negation of the operand

```
let x = 2
-x //-2
x //2
```

## Unary plus (+)

If the operand is not a number, it tries to convert it. Otherwise if the operand is already a number, it does nothing.

```
let x = 2
+x //2
x = '2'
+x //2
x = '2a'
+x //NaN
```