Skip to content

Python Closures

We've previously seen how to create a nested function in Python.

If you return a nested function from a function, that nested function has access to the variables defined in that function, even if that function is not active any more.

Here is a simple counter example.

def counter():
    count = 0

    def increment():
        nonlocal count
        count = count + 1
        return count

    return increment

increment = counter()

print(increment()) # 1
print(increment()) # 2
print(increment()) # 3

We return the increment() inner function, and that has still access to the state of the count variable even though the counter() function has ended.

→ Download my free Python Handbook!



You might be interested in those things I do:

  • Learn to code in THE VALLEY OF CODE, your your web development manual
  • Find a ton of Web Development projects to learn modern tech stacks in practice in THE VALLEY OF CODE PRO
  • I wrote 16 books for beginner software developers, DOWNLOAD THEM NOW
  • Every year I organize a hands-on cohort course coding BOOTCAMP to teach you how to build a complex, modern Web Application in practice (next edition February-March-April-May 2024)
  • Learn how to start a solopreneur business on the Internet with SOLO LAB (next edition in 2024)
  • Find me on X

Related posts that talk about python: