The Virtual DOM
The Virtual DOM is a technique that React uses to optimize interacting with the browser
Many existing frameworks, before React came on the scene, were directly manipulating the DOM on every change.
First, what is the DOM?
The DOM (Document Object Model) is a Tree representation of the page, starting from the
<html> tag, going down into every child, which are called nodes.
It’s kept in the browser memory, and directly linked to what you see in a page. The DOM has an API that you can use to traverse it, access every single node, filter them, modify them.
The API is the familiar syntax you have likely seen many times, if you were not using the abstract API provided by jQuery and friends:
document.getElementById(id) document.getElementsByTagName(name) document.createElement(name) parentNode.appendChild(node) element.innerHTML element.style.left element.setAttribute() element.getAttribute() element.addEventListener() window.content window.onload window.dump() window.scrollTo()
React keeps a copy of the DOM representation, for what concerns the React rendering: the Virtual DOM
The Virtual DOM Explained
Every time the DOM changes, the browser has to do two intensive operations: repaint (visual or content changes to an element that do not affect the layout and positioning relative to other elements) and reflow (recalculate the layout of a portion of the page - or the whole page layout).
React uses a Virtual DOM to help the browser use less resources when changes need to be done on a page.
When you call
setState() on a Component, specifying a state different than the previous one, React marks that Component as dirty. This is key: React only updates when a Component changes the state explicitly.
What happens next is:
- React updates the Virtual DOM relative to the components marked as dirty (with some additional checks, like triggering
- Runs the diffing algorithm to reconcile the changes
- Updates the real DOM
Why is the Virtual DOM helpful: batching
The key thing is that React batches much of the changes and performs a unique update to the real DOM, by changing all the elements that need to be changed at the same time, so the repaint and reflow the browser must perform to render the changes are executed just once.
THE VALLEY OF CODE
THE WEB DEVELOPER's MANUAL
You might be interested in those things I do:
- Learn to code in THE VALLEY OF CODE, your your web development manual
- Find a ton of Web Development projects to learn modern tech stacks in practice in THE VALLEY OF CODE PRO
- I wrote 16 books for beginner software developers, DOWNLOAD THEM NOW
- Every year I organize a hands-on cohort course coding BOOTCAMP to teach you how to build a complex, modern Web Application in practice (next edition February-March-April-May 2024)
- Learn how to start a solopreneur business on the Internet with SOLO LAB (next edition in 2024)
- Find me on X