# Python Operators

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Python operators are symbols that we use to run operations upon values and variables.

We can divide operators based on the kind of operation they perform:

• assignment operator
• arithmetic operators
• comparison operators
• logical operators
• bitwise operators

plus some interesting ones like `is` and `in`.

### Assignment operator

The assignment operator is used to assign a value to a variable:

``````age = 8
``````

Or to assign a variable value to another variable:

``````age = 8
anotherVariable = age
``````

Since Python 3.8, the `:=` walrus operator is used to assign a value to a variable as part of another operation. For example inside an `if` or in the conditional part of a loop. More on that later.

### Arithmetic operators

Python has a number of arithmetic operators: `+`, `-`, `*`, `/` (division), `%` (remainder), `**` (exponentiation) and `//` (floor division):

``````1 + 1 #2
2 - 1 #1
2 * 2 #4
4 / 2 #2
4 % 3 #1
4 ** 2 #16
4 // 2 #2
``````

Note that you don’t need a space between the operands, but it’s good for readability.

`-` also works as a unary minus operator:

``````print(-4) #-4
``````

`+` is also used to concatenate String values:

``````"Roger" + " is a good dog"
#Roger is a good dog
``````

We can combine the assignment operator with arithmetic operators:

• `+=`
• `-=`
• `*=`
• `/=`
• `%=`
• ..and so on

Example:

``````age = 8
age += 1
# age is now 9
``````

### Comparison operators

Python defines a few comparison operators:

• `==`
• `!=`
• `>`
• `<`
• `>=`
• `<=`

You can use those operators to get a boolean value (`True` or `False`) depending on the result:

``````a = 1
b = 2

a == b #False
a != b #True
a > b #False
a <= b #True
``````

### Boolean operators

Python gives us the following boolean operators:

• `not`
• `and`
• `or`

When working with `True` or `False` attributes, those work like logical AND, OR and NOT, and are often used in the `if` conditional expression evaluation:

``````condition1 = True
condition2 = False

not condition1 #False
condition1 and condition2 #False
condition1 or condition2 #True
``````

Otherwise, pay attention to a possible source of confusion.

`or` used in an expression returns the value of the first operand that is not a falsy value (`False`, `0`, `''`, `[]`..). Otherwise it returns the last operand.

``````print(0 or 1) ## 1
print(False or 'hey') ## 'hey'
print('hi' or 'hey') ## 'hi'
print([] or False) ## 'False'
print(False or []) ## '[]'
``````

The Python docs describe it as `if x is false, then y, else x`.

`and` only evaluates the second argument if the first one is true. So if the first argument is falsy (`False`, `0`, `''`, `[]`..), it returns that argument. Otherwise it evaluates the second argument:

``````print(0 and 1) ## 0
print(1 and 0) ## 0
print(False and 'hey') ## False
print('hi' and 'hey') ## 'hey'
print([] and False ) ## []
print(False and [] ) ## False
``````

The Python docs describe it as `if x is false, then x, else y`.

### Bitwise operators

Some operators are used to work on bits and binary numbers:

• `&` performs binary AND
• `|` performs binary OR
• `^` performs a binary XOR operation
• `~` performs a binary NOT operation
• `<<` shift left operation
• `>>` shift right operation

Bitwise operators are rarely used, only in very specific situations, but they are worth mentioning.

### is and in

`is` is called the identity operator. It is used to compare two objects and returns true if both are the same object. More on objects later.

`in` is called the membership operator. Is used to tell if a value is contained in a list, or another sequence. More on lists and other sequences later.

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